Стоянка охотников и собирателей Лепенски-Вир. Традиции, искусство и датировки перехода к земледелию


Lepenski Vir is one of
largest and most important archaeological sites
between the Paleolithic and Neolithic. It is located on the right
the bank of the Danube in the gorge Djerdap known as Iron
Gate, in the territory of Serbia, bordering Romania
in the central part of the Balkan the peninsula. And 14 km upstream
from the modern town Donji Milanovac, on top
from 59 to 72 m above sea level. Excavations in the area
were conducted from 1965 to 1970, before transfer before flooding
territory due to the beginning construction of hydroelectric power plants
I. In the process was investigated
2400 territory m2 consisting mainly of
from river terraces stacked from thin-layered river
sands and colluvial deposits. But the result justified everything
waiting by opening the researchers rather large ancient
settlement of hunter-gatherers with a unique archaeological
culture discovered only on 20 sites covering
about 150 km along both the banks of the Danube. The region forms a special
microgap with four ravines and three river valleys,
characterized by difficult geological history. In these places, the Danube cuts through
southern sleeve of the Carpathian Mountains. And selective erosion
the underlying rocks created, in the old days, irregularities
in the riverbed with whirlpools, pools and good sites
for fishing which and used by people on
The danube, at least from the beginning Holocene. Because the irregularities of the bed
rivers promoted fishing sturgeon in particular starlet
and beluga, whose bones were found in the Mesolithic
and neolithic sediments several plots in this
region. All these aspects of local
ecology contributed long adaptation of hunters
and gatherers since epipaleolithic, timed
warm billing allerid off season just like in caves
Quina Turkului and Clement II. And some places are open
sky, including Lepenski Vir, people started borrowing more
from the beginning of the Holocene, around 11600 years ago. But the site Lepenski Vir
stood out from the rest by a number of distinctive features:
one. About 70 detected trapezoid
buildings similar to tents, were equipped carefully
decorated floors of reddish limestone
clay and rectangular stone foci in the center. Earliest buildings
were probably seasonal, and could be used
for ritual purposes to those until they decided
live permanently Facilities were located
like a fan on the slope of a river terraces and some were
slightly dug into the ground from the back narrow side
the base of the trapezoid. One of the sharp sides of buildings
was located with lee side. Wider side
served as the entrance was facing the river which
was an important source resources for residents of the settlement. But on the opposite bank
there is also a rock Treskavats, just in shape
trapezoidal (not to be confused with the same name
mountain). It is possible that the rock served
a kind of symbol and had a cult significance
and also participated in the calendar. Because the calculations showed
that between April 20 and May 1, in the village could be observed
heliacal sunrise, after appearing above the rock
star cluster Pleiades, in the morning sun. That many later
north european people was the beginning of the year. Therefore, some researchers
admit that Lepenski Vir was the most ancient, natural
by the observatory. It is also noteworthy that
this form of houses more never met. Also in the first houses were
and shrines occupying a quarter of the dwelling area
in which new ones appear elements like triangles
with extended ends of red stone tiles
inclined to the floor with a hearth. But to later periods
the number of shrines decreases, which is possibly due to
the beginning of more centralized, collective rites in
one place. 2 Many of the residential properties
settlements at the end of their use were turned into tombs
and were associated with burials people some of which
accompanied by heads and animal bones, horns
deer, as well as dismembered human remains
in partial burials. Also, in 17 buildings there were
burials discovered 40 newborns. It is also interesting that in partial
burials, all separately men’s buried skulls,
and the lower jaws are female. And some of the provisions of the skeletons
under the floors of buildings reminded poses of childbirth, and regardless
from the floor of the buried. 3 But the most famous feature
are sculptures of Lepenski Vira, found inside and out
dwellings. They were made of sandstone
different sizes, depending on the size of the buildings. The biggest of the sculptures,
weighed over 50 kg and were delivered here from the headwaters
river Boletin, tributary Danube, about 10 km from
settlements. On the archaeological site
was excavated at least as far as 94 objects that
can be considered as artwork. They included sandy
boulders decorated with geometric pictures and sometimes images
half hybrid fish, and half people. They probably symbolized
deity of the river, kind fish spirit. Also met anatomical
images of the bodies of fish and boulders, embellished
drawings and were also stones without pictures, so
called, aniconic, but located in
same context as ornamented boulders which probably
also had a symbolic meaning. The findings have been described quite
good however dating and stratigraphy cause
controversy because in the 60s last century equipment
and the methods were less accurate. After the excavation of Lepenski Vir
was moved to more high point from the original
places which is now located under water at a depth of 12
meters Therefore, dating had to
specify by displaced artifacts. Although even the authors of the original
excavation after flooding believed that much more
could dig up. But the powerhouse was
need more In the new work, researchers
clarified dates, thanks use of modern
and improved techniques in particular accelerator
mass spectrometry. As a result, with probability
95% plot Lepenski Vir was busy from the beginning of the Holocene
11900-11200 years ago. Early and Middle Mesolithic
phases (proto-Lepenski Vir) could be intermittent. Findings from these phases did not overlap
each other stratigraphically. And the end of the early period
dated 9480–8860 years ago which corresponds to the date
beginning of the late Mesolithic. The early phase did not overlap
phase transition from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic with trapezoidal
buildings and boulders (phase I-II). It is possible that between these
phases there was a break for at least 700
years old. Phase transition I-II, the most
noticeably presented on trapezoidal area
buildings and distribution stone works
art. But this phase was relatively
short in the range of 8170-8070 up to 8010-7940 years ago. Phase duration
estimated from 80 to 210 years. Next phase III, early
Neolithic beginning around 7990-7900 years ago, noticeably
intersects with previous phases and ends
7900-7660 years ago. Chronological modeling
in a new study allows better understand the mechanisms
associated with the transition to farming and new way
living in this key region Southeast Europe. Because at the moment
no other sites found that would save like
wealth of archaeological data for the transition phase
between the Mesolithic and Neolithic, regardless of flooding
plot. Phase I-II gives a rare opportunity
observe the pace of influence Neolithic groups spread
from the south-east to the local hunter-gatherer population
and their culture. Has also been revised
chronology and stratigraphy plot of Lepenski Vir proposed
the first participants in the excavation. In addition, researchers
consider it unlikely that plot Lepenski Vir
was settled during the late Mesolithic, although completely
do not exclude such a possibility because unlike
ancient hunters and gatherers, they were not so much
there is a connection with fish to check it out. However, after the initial
settling and long a break of 7 centuries, intensity
construction on the site resumes just
while in adjoining areas of the Balkans are already full
hosted by the early Neolithic groups of farmers. Therefore, in the new work
scientists argue that exactly contacts and exchange,
between the early Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers
Danube gorge in which participated as material
good, so and women, with mutual friendships organisms caused
a splash of cultural and symbolic creativity, the ancient hunter-gatherers
Lepenski Vira, with elements Eastern practices in some
burials. And also during this period
older sites were carried on intensive construction
trapezoidal buildings with solid reddish
floors in just a couple of generations. What was accompanied by an increase
quantities of stone works art during phase
I-II, analogues to which, earlier in the Mesolithic did not occur. The style of these works is probably
represented the embodiment in the life of myths, symbolism
and the beliefs of indigenous hunter-gatherers. Although researchers point out
that similar decorative elements previously could be applied
more perishable materials like wood
or skin. And some researchers,
even tried to distinguish sculptures made
women and men. Scientists also note
which is about 8.2 kyr ago re-colonization
coincided with the deteriorating climate but confirmation of this data
requires additional research on
Square Europe. Earlier genomic
studies published in February 2018 in which
Representatives also participated Lepenski Vira, confirm
communication of European hunters and collectors with the early
farmers. Because two of his representatives,
8200 and 7600 years old, carried in itself the pedigree of the Neolithic
northwest of Anatolia. And strontium isotope data
and nitrogen indicate that that these people were migrants
from outside the region Iron Gate which
previously did not eat fish. Another representative,
8070 years old represented already a mixture of Anatolian
and hunter-gatherers, who ate fish from
The Danube. The fourth research participant,
earlier individual had pedigree, completely
associated with local hunters and gatherers. All these results give
archaeological, stratigraphic and genetic evidence
the fact that the iron district The gate was a place of interaction
between groups that differ both by origin
and by way of life, even long before new migrations, but already
nomads from eurasia steppes associated with pit
culture. What ultimately formed
basic genetic composition of the ancient Europeans.

10 comments

  • БАБУИН — Археология, история, генетика

    Вопросы к подписчикам:
    1. Приходят ли уведомления о новых видео? А то таких низких показателей на канале ещё не было, за 2 часа после публикации.
    2. Появилась функция премьер, но решил использовать её позже. Хотя Вы возможно с ней сталкивались. Стоит ли ей пользоваться?
    3. В последних видео стал больше уделять внимания подробностям и поиску фотоматериалов по теме с разрешениями и правами на использование, что занимает уйму времени, а видео выходят реже. Стоит ли иногда возвращать виртуальную студию с диктором для увеличения количества выпусков? Потому как рассказать хочется намного больше чем получается по времени.
    Также приветствуются советы по улучшению канала!

    Reply
  • Егор Л.

    Про пожелания. Я лично филолог и психолог по образованию, хоть и интересуюсь темами, затрагиваемыми Вами. Поэтому иногда приходится напрягаться и быстро соображать, когда Вы жонглируете словами палеолит, мезолит, неолит и т.д.без привязки к календарю. Дело осложняется тем, что, насколько знаю, эти эпохи в разных регионах в разное время наступали. Опять же стратиграфия, какой-то там восход солнца близко ко дню весеннего равноденствия и т.д. Хотя потихоньку (во многом и благодаря Вашему каналу) образвовываюсь и подтягиваю знания…
    Я это к чему, я не про не про палеолит-мезолит-неолит. Благо Вы в конце именно этого видео даете график с соотношением этих периодов и датировками. Воррос более глобальный. Если я в меньшинстве, и Ваша аудитория , в основном, более узко специализированная – геологи, археологи, антропологи и т.д., то все ок. Если нет, то можно чуть более упростить стиль изложения.
    Предлагаю другим подписчикам высказаться по этому поводу.

    Reply
  • Ashot54

    Испугался, когда голова внезапно начала говорить.

    Reply
  • Егор Л.

    Блин, вот еще пооблема, давно уже. Ставлю лайк, перезагружаю страницу, лайк исчезает.
    p.s. Смотрю со смартфона через браузер.

    Reply
  • Михаил Исаков

    надо бы микрофон новый

    Reply
  • Юрий Мешков

    Лайки есть, подписота не растет.

    Reply
  • cyberlionn

    Спасибо! природная обсерватория и гелиакический восход по Плеядам впечатлили.

    Reply
  • Pro Logo Designs

    Not trapez-triangle yes!

    Reply
  • Марјан Вуковић

    Добро урађен видео. Поздрав из Србије

    Reply
  • Марсель Хусаинов

    с обоюдной дружбой организмами=))

    Reply

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