3-Dimensional Effects: How-To Airbrush Rivets & Overlapping Panels (Part 2)


In part one we looked at a few different
methods you can use to render rivets. For part two, I’ll show you guys the method I
prefer to use when I’m working over a metallic or any specialized base coat.
And we’ll also take a look at the panels that you often see with this effect. Wicked Art Airbrush Studio 3-Dimensional Effects: Rivets & Overlapping Panels Part 2 Okay,
in part one I talked about how I don’t necessarily like to use a white when I’m
working over any kind of specialized base coat. And what I mean by specialized
base coat is anything with a metallic, pearl, anything highly reflective when
it’s under good light or outside under the sun. The interesting thing is the
black, or the transparent black can actually create dead spots in the
reflectivity as well. If you layer it on thick enough it will cover up some of
that base coat and those metallic particles will not be allowed to reflect
through the black if you put it on thick enough. We’ll talk about that more here
in a few minutes. To begin, I want to show you guys the way
I prefer to render rivets over a specialized base coat. And it starts with
candies. Candies are 100% transparent. Regardless of how many coats I put on
here, it will still allow all those little metallic particles to reflect
through the candy color. So I prefer using candies when I’m doing this effect
over a metallic base coat. So I’ve mixed up some Candy2o black. And it’s one part
of Candy2o black, one part of the 4030 Balancing Clear and one part 4011
reducer. So it’s a 1 to 1 to 1 mix for this particular application. So to begin
with, we’ll begin by creating a rivet. It’s essentially the same process that
we used in part 1. I’m gonna use my stencil, The Big Shield,
to create a rivet. And it’s the same process. Our light source is coming from
up here. So I’m going to create the shadow, the bottom side of this rivet. Candies are a lot thinner. So it will
take a few more coats to build this up. And work in very light layers. If you
hose it on it will spider out on you, or you can get a flood stroke. Move the mask and you can see that we have a
nice little shadow on the bottom side of the rivet. So if we can’t use white how
are we going to create the highlight for this particular rivet? We’ll use negative
space for the highlight when you’re using this method. So I’ll go back to the 360
shield and do the same thing, the little trick I showed you on the other side of
the panel, that’s how I create the highlight and the definition for the top
portion of this rivet. Here’s another little trick. If you’re going to use your
shield, your free hand shields, over and over and over for this effect, rather
than using a cutout vinyl mask or, another mask that you cut out, I
mentioned in part one that once you start getting paint built up on this
freehand shield, it makes it very difficult to line it up so that I can
see exactly where I want to be. And if you get it off, it’s pretty noticeable. So you
can take a paper towel and either rubbing alcohol or Windex, I’m using
rubbing alcohol because it works a little bit faster and a little bit
easier, spray it onto the paper towel and you can wipe the paint right off. Make sure it’s dry before you put it
back on to the canvas because the rubbing alcohol will strip the paint off
of the surface you’re painting on as well. So now that I have the mask cleaned
off, I can see better to line this up. And again, I’m going to bounce the color off
of the freehand shield. I just want a very slight sliver going around the top of
this rivet, just to define it. So I’ll line this up. And that’s really all you need. It’s not
extremely noticeable, but it’s just enough to set off the top of that rivet.
I could probably go a little bit more on the top side. And that does a pretty good
job of defining the top of the rivet. So now the negative space becomes the
highlight. And when it comes to the center of this rivet, if you’re going to
put that hole in the center of the rivet, if you’re not confident in your airbrush
skills, if you don’t have the control to put a very small dot right there, again
you can use the freehand shield. Like I mentioned before, it’s going to get
covered with paint as you paint more and more of these dots, but you can use
Windex or the rubbing alcohol to clean that off. So for this one I’ll use the
stencil. Mark this off. And the same process. Now I’ll go darker for this particular
portion because this is an actual hole in the rivet itself. Remember to use the air to dry it. Now
it’s slightly off-center there, but it doesn’t look terribly bad. Which
brings up another point, contrast is relative. Remember that. So now that we
have that very dark hole in the center of this rivet we could actually come in and
darken up the bottom shadow a little bit more. So I’ll take the stencil, line this
up best I can and add a little bit more of the shadow. I don’t want the shadow to be as dark as
what we did in the center of the rivet, but I wanted it to be just a little bit
darker. Same thing for the definition on the top of the rivet, we can come in and
put just a little bit more… That looks better. You want to remember
to work progressively. Build up your values slowly, especially when you’re
working with candies and you’re doing something like this because if you go
too dark too soon working with the candy there’s pretty much… you’re very limited
as far as how you can fix this. So work it slowly. That looks pretty
good. Again, we’ve got the highlight now created through negative space. And you
could even take it a step further. If you get a little too much of the candy up in
the highlight, you can take an eraser and redefine that highlight if you need to
do so. So for the shadow, we talked about the distortion in the metal. If we were…
imagine we were punching rivets into this piece of metal. It’s a thin piece of
metal. So it’s going to distort the metal to some degree ever so slightly. It’s the same
process that we used over here. So if our light source is coming from up here,
we’ll have a shadow directly above the rivet. And this, you want to go very
lightly. Just like we did on the other side with the transparent black. A little
bit goes a long way here. Probably go just a little bit darker. So now we need to create the highlight
underneath the rivet in the distorted portion of the metal. Again, we don’t
want to use white because white will create a dead space on this panel where
it will block all the metallic particles from being reflected under good light, or
outside under the sun. So I’ll use the same method basically as we did for
the rivet head itself to create the highlight in the distorted portion of
the metal through negative space. It’s the same process that I showed you on
the two lower rivets on this side of the panel. Using the 360 degree shield, I will put one of these circular shapes, hovering it
above the panel, probably 3/8 to maybe a half an inch, and I’m going to very
lightly bounce a little bit of color off of the shield and on to the panel. That’s probably a little bit far out,
but you can see now we have just a hint of a shadow on the metal itself. And
then it leaves you with a little bit of a highlight right here through negative
space. So here’s one more option that you can choose to throw into your rivets if
you like. This is not 100% necessary to do but it’s another option,
another thing to throw into your tool box. What I’ve done is I’ve taken Candy2o Marine Blue and I mixed some Candy2o black with that marine blue. So it’s
darkened up the color quite a bit. It looks like this right here. The other
option you can do for the highlight in the distorted metal is you can take just
a very, very, very light amount of this color and put just a little… just a hint
into that area we created the highlight on through negative space. And what that
does is, think about chrome, how if you render chrome you’ll have the horizon
line is usually very dark almost black, if not black. Above that you’ll have
what’s reflected from the sky. So you’ll have blues. And then below you’ll have
the browns which is reflected from the ground, the earths. So just a hint of
that blue kind of gives you the reflection… the illusion of the
reflection from the sky. So again that’s just an option. You can use it if you
want but it’s not 100% necessary. You can also use the blue versus the black on
the bottom side of the highlight in negative space. Now, if you do that I
wouldn’t use the blue in the highlight itself. Just options guys, but that’s
pretty much the method I use for rendering rivets over a metallic base or
any kind of specialized coating that has a lot of reflectivity. Okay, we’ve looked at
the method I prefer to use when I’m rendering rivets
over a metallic or specialized base coat. So now we can get into the panels. There
are typically two different ways you’ll see the panels depicted with this
process. Either you’ll have two panels that are somewhat butted up next to each
other, there’s usually gap or a space in between them that have been riveted
together, or you will see one panel on top of another panel and they have been
riveted together. We’ll go with the panels that are butted up next to each
other first. And about the easiest way to create that
panel gap is with a strip of masking tape. So I will lay out a piece of tape on this
panel and another piece of tape with a little bit of a gap. That’s the
panel gap. So now I will come in with the airbrush and the candy black and paint
the gap in this panel. And we talked about earlier how the black or a
transparent black, not a candy, will ultimately cover all the reflective
properties in the metallic particles as well. When I’m dealing with a panel gap I
don’t have an issue with using a regular black for that gap because it’s a space
in between two panels that you’re depicting. You can use either method. I
think they both look just fine. I’m using the Candy2o black because it was
already in the airbrush. So that’s pretty well dark and blacked
out well enough for this panel. So I will remove one side of this tape. Again, this
gap is not very big at all. Here’s another little option you can throw into
your panel gaps if you choose to do so. It’s kind of an extra step, but remember
we’ve talked about how when we’re punching rivets into this simulated
metal panel that it would distort the metal to some degree. Well if it’s distorting
the metal around the rivet then it stands to reason that there would probably be a
little bit of distortion in your panel gap as well. It’s not necessary, and
actually a little bit more realistic I think in my opinion, to have not a
perfectly straight panel gap. Another option you can do is come in and put a
bend in that gap. So using the 360 degree shield, I’m going to add a little bit of a kick-out
right here. Nothing crazy, but it bows out just a
little bit. Now I’ll remove the other side of this tape. And you can do that as
many times as you want, but you don’t want to get too carried away with it.
Less is more when it comes to these effects. Now to finish off that little
gap, because now it looks like this side of the panel has just a little bit of a
bow in it, so to really pull off the effect you would want to add just a
little bit of a shadow underneath that bow. So using the 360 degree shield again
and I’m going to keep the shield off of the panel about 3/8 to a 1/2 an inch and
just dust a little bit of a shadow right there. And
it gives you the optical illusion that there is a slight bend in the metal
panel, or simulated metal panel, in that area. And through negative space you wind
up with the highlight on this side. You could even come up just a little bit
above and put another very light, very, very, very light shade of this black. And it even
sets off that wrinkle in the panel a little bit more. That’s essentially all
you need to do for two panels that are butted up next to each other. The only
other thing I would do is continue the rivets down both sides of this panel. And
that brings me to another point. Oftentimes when you’re looking at this
effect if it’s done on a vehicle or a motorcycle helmet, something to that
effect, we’ll usually find already existing gaps. Like the gap between the
front fender and the door. And a lot of times if you really pay attention you
only see the rivets depicted on one side of that gap. You can get away with that.
Realistically yes, there would be another piece of metal underneath these two
panels and you’d have to rivet both sides together, but painting these rivets
takes a considerable amount of time. So depending on the client, the budget that
the client is working with, a lot of times I will only paint the rivets on one side
of the panel. If they request that it’s done on both sides of the panel that’s
fine, but it costs additional funds… it costs
an additional amount of money. So just something else to keep in mind. So now we
can move on to the panel that is riveted to this panel, sitting on top of it. So the
easiest way to do this my opinion is I’ve taken a piece of photo paper, just
because I had it lying around, and I’ve cut out a rectangular shape with rounded corners.
So I have a positive and negative stencil essentially. So what I’m going to do
first is take a couple of pieces of tape and tape
this on to this panel about where I want to make this panel. So the trick here is…
because… because we’re not using white, ordinarily if I were painting this in
the traditional method and I was using white I would use white to put a sliver of a
highlight along the left side of this panel and along the top because again
our light source is coming from up here. Because we’re not using white we have to
create the highlights using negative space just like we did with the rivet. So
to create the top left-hand portion of this panel I’m going to put a very, very
light coat, just dust coat, of this Candy2o black on here. And that will separate the
panel from the rest of the background. Again, this is very light. It doesn’t take
very much at all. Let’s pull this up and see how that looks.
I think I can work with that. So from here I will take the negative
part of the stencil, if I can line it up correctly, and I’m going to tape this down in
place. And I can remove this one. So now I can
create the shadow, hopefully this makes sense, so this will be the panel, the
shape of the panel that has been riveted on to the top of the existing panel. So
now I want to create the shadow along the right and the bottom side. And I’ll
do this the same way spraying on to the shield, or the stencil whatever you want
to call it, more than I am the actual panel. I’m not going to go full dark like
we did with the panel gap, but it will get relatively dark because again, this
is a shadow. Remember work in light layers. Dry it
with the air if you need to. I’m trying to get the air under it so I can lift it up
and see… I think that looks pretty good. Now much as we did to make the highlight
through negative space in the top of this rivet with just that sliver around
the top of the rivet, I’m going to do the same thing in a few key areas around
this. I don’t want to spray a dark sliver line all the way around the top or the
left corner, but in a few areas I’ll throw it on there. Let’s see what that looks like. Again,
this is not spectacular. I went a little too dark and a little too wide on those
dark areas around the highlight end, but it is just a test panel and I’m trying
to keep this time sensitive for the YouTube video. So from this point the
only thing left to do is to come in and paint the rivets around the panel and on
the sides of these two panels that are butted up. I will do that off-camera. One
thing I will mention is when you’re doing a rivet, say in this corner where
we’ve got that little bit of a light wash of candy, don’t forget you can come in with your
pencil eraser and erase the highlight back out of the rivet to keep that
highlight intact. So off-camera I’ll go ahead and spray the rest of these rivets.
I’ll throw some clear on it, let you guys see it and then you can see the
results for yourself and choose what you want to use. For whatever reason any time
I tell you guys that I’m going to clear coat a panel so that I can show you what it
looks like under good lighting it’s always either overcast or raining here.
And today is no exception. It’s been cloudy all day, it’s been raining off and
on. So I did the best I could under the conditions that I have, but I think I’ve
got some good footage that will at least show you guys the metallic reflective
properties of the base coat on this panel. I finished off all these rivets
off-camera. Full disclosure, I was in a hurry. I’ve got other stuff that I need
to be doing as well and I rushed every one of these rivets. I went way too dark on
all of these rivets. And it is what it is. I’m not going to make any excuses, but
this was just a test panel. It was more about showing you guys the different
methods you can use to render rivets. So if we look at the first example, again
this doesn’t look bad, and if I’m working on any kind of just a solid base coat,
this is the method that I will almost always
choose to use because it looks awesome, but when you look at it under light you can
see the reflective properties, all those little metallic particles that are
bouncing off the light are blocked from the white. That’s the reason that I don’t
particularly like using white on any kind of specialized or metallic base coat.
If we go to rivet number two and three that we painted where I used the
aluminum base and the pearl white, the aluminum base actually surprisingly
blocked the reflective properties from the existing base coat as well. I was
kind of surprised by that. I think it may have to do with the fact that I got a
little bit heavy with that aluminum base on this rivet. Again, it doesn’t look bad,
but it doesn’t look as good as it could in my opinion. And again guys, these are
my opinions. This is giving you options. You pick what you like. I’m not saying
this is the way. These are different ways. It’s up to you as the artist to pick
what you like and what you want to do. The pearl white actually looks pretty
good. The pearl white does not block the metallic base coat from reflecting any
of those metallic particles. And when the light hits that pearl just right it acts
like a pearl and it really glows, that highlight stands out. So it actually
looks pretty cool. The downfall to that is the light has to
hit that highlight just right to really make it pop. As I said before in the
instructional part of the video, rivet number four, this is the method that I
prefer to use when I’m working over a metallic, pearl, any kind of specialized
base coat because it’s so clean. And you can really see the difference between
the shading on this one that I did as an instructional on camera a demonstration
versus all these others that I rushed through. You can see how light the
shading is around this rivet. That’s what you really need to concentrate on when
you’re doing this kind of stuff. Keep your shading light.
Unless you’ve got a very hard shadow like around this plate here, keep your
shadows light. It looks so much better… this rivet does compared to all these
other rivets, but again these are all just options. To get that highlight I
use the eraser off-camera as well. So there you go guys,
I hope you got something out of this, this turned into a little bit longer
video than I had anticipated which seems to be pretty much normal for me, but it
gives you some different options, some different ideas things to try and don’t
be afraid to experiment on your own. That’s how all this stuff is figured out
in the end. It’s from guys just trying different stuff, sometimes that’s passed
on sometimes it’s not. So I hope you got something out of this, if you did
remember to like, subscribe and share. I’m Trevor with Wicked Art Studio. I’ll see
you guys next time.

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