How scientists colorize photos of space


This is all the light in the universe that
we can see. It’s just a fraction of what’s out there.
Most frequencies of light are actually invisible to us. The light we can see appears red at its lowest
frequencies and violet at its highest. This is called the “visible spectrum,”
and we see it because cells in our eyes called “cones” interpret light reflecting off
of objects. We have three different types of cones that
are sensitive to long, medium, and short wavelengths of light. Which roughly correspond to red, green, and
blue on the visible spectrum. These are the primary colors of light. Every
other color is some combination of these three. And that combination is the guiding principle
in colorizing black and white images. This portrait was taken in 1911. I know. You came here for space photos. We’re
getting there, I promise. It’s one of the first examples of color
photography, and it’s actually three black-and-white photos composited together. Russian chemist Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii took
three identical shots of this man, Alim Khan, using filters for specific colors of light. One allowed red light to pass through, one
allowed green, and one allowed blue. You can really see how effective this filter
system is when you compare the red and blue exposures. Look how bright Khan’s blue robe is in
the photo on the right, meaning more of that color light passed through the filter. Dyeing and combining the three negatives gives
you this. Alright, you get the idea. So let’s take
it into space. The Hubble Space Telescope has been orbiting
Earth since 1990, expanding human vision into deep space and giving us images like this
one. The thing is, every Hubble image you see started
out black-and-white. That’s because Hubble’s main function
is to measure the brightness of light reflecting off objects in space, which is clearest in
black-and-white. The color is added later, just like the portrait
of Alim Khan/ Except today, scientists use computer programs
like Photoshop. Let’s use this photo of Saturn as an example. Filters separate light into long, medium,
and short wavelengths. This is called “broadband filtering,”
since it targets general ranges of light. Each of the three black-and-white images are
then assigned a color based on their position on the visible spectrum. The combined result is a “true color”
image, or what the object would look like if your eyes were as powerful as a telescope
like Hubble. Okay, now one with Jupiter. See how combining the red and green brings
in yellow? And then adding blue brings cyan and magenta
to fully represent visible spectrum. Watch this animation two more times and I think
you’ll see it. Great, now let’s add another level of complexity. Seeing an object as it would appear to our
eyes isn’t the only way to use color. Scientists also use it to map out how different
gases interact in the universe to form galaxies and nebulae. Hubble can record very narrow bands of light
coming from individual elements, like oxygen and carbon, and use color to track their presence
in an image. This is called “narrowband filtering.” The most common application of narrowband
filtering isolates light from hydrogen, sulfur, and oxygen, three key building blocks of stars. Hubble’s most famous example of this is
called the Pillars of Creation, which captured huge towers of gas and dust forming new star
systems. But this isn’t a “true color” image,
like the one of Saturn from before. It’s more of a colorized map. Hydrogen and sulfur are both seen naturally
in red light, and oxygen is more blue. Coloring these gases as we’d actually see
them would produce red, red, and cyan, and the Pillars of Creation would look more like
this. Not as useful for visual analysis. In order to get a full color image and visually
separate the sulfur from the hydrogen, scientists assign the elements to red, green and blue
according to their place in the “chromatic order.” Basically that means that since oxygen has
the highest frequency of the three, it’s assigned blue. And since hydrogen is red but a higher frequency
than sulfur, it gets green. The result is a full color image mapping out
the process by which our own solar system might have formed. The Hubble Space Telescope can record light
outside of the visible spectrum too – in the ultraviolet and near-infrared bands. An infrared image of the Pillars of Creation,
for example, looks very different. The longer wavelengths penetrate the clouds
of dust and gas that block out visible light frequencies, revealing clusters of stars within
it and beyond. These images showing invisible light are colored
the same way: multiple filtered exposures are assigned a color based on their place
in chromatic order. Lowest frequencies get red, middle get green,
highest get blue. Which could beg the question: are the colors
real? Yes and no. The color represents real data. And it’s used to visualize the chemical
makeup of an object or an area in space, helping scientists see how gases interact thousands
of lightyears away, giving us critical information about how stars and galaxies form over time. So even if it isn’t technically how our
eyes would perceive these objects, it’s not made up, either. The color creates beautiful images, but more
importantly — it shows us the invisible parts of our universe.

100 comments

  • Zumashetze *

    Yes the colors r real

    Reply
  • Bill Windsor

    @Vox – so informative; thank you for your careful walk-through on the light and electromagnetic spectrum processing of astrophotography!

    Reply
  • Dario Vurchio

    great video

    Reply
  • Abhay Agarwal

    Great explanation ,even tho I still didn't understand but pretty much simplified if I was in this sector 🙂

    Reply
  • ACG - Rivalee

    They never added space in America yet….

    Reply
  • Joel Moore

    *Colourise

    Reply
  • EXHD9 _

    Does that mean you can colorize b & w images???

    Reply
  • Mackenzie Robinson

    But why are red, green, and blue the primary colors of light when red, yellow, and blue are the primary colors. Green is made from yellow and blue

    Reply
  • JakulaithWolff

    If I was going to discover a new colour… I wonder how it would be!

    Reply
  • Uchiha Obito

    Thanks , ı am Turk

    Reply
  • Rafael Farias

    legal o canal, obrigado ISS !!

    Reply
  • Awaiting End

    weird first example you put up

    Reply
  • eferg16

    Finally, the answer to a question I asked myself once and forgot about.
    This is so amazing! It makes the universe that much more interesting.
    S C I E N C E

    Reply
  • Hacen SIDIQ

    This is amazing

    Reply
  • Pommit

    I really want to see more true colour images of space now, for curiosity's sake.

    Reply
  • Safiye Serdengeçti

    This is a really well-explained video, even relatable to microscopic images as well! As molecular neuroscientists, we also use RGB principle in microscope image analysis.

    Reply
  • saturn *:・゚

    So basically everything in this world is a lie

    Reply
  • dragon slayer god

    I wanna be a mantis shrimp now

    Reply
  • Super 🐧

    The black scientists give it the n word pass so it turns colored

    Reply
  • Jared M

    cool

    Reply
  • mint

    i’ve always thought about how the dinosaurs actual colors looked like

    Reply
  • John Wick

    Lol this is sad. I now have doubts about space.

    Reply
  • s̶i̶n̶c̶e̶r̶e̶l̶y̶

    Title: How scientists colorize photos of the space.
    Me: What?!! 😢😔💔

    Reply
  • FedoraMiaza

    Hey Vox!
    Can we please have a schedule from you for the different series you upload (Ex. Darkroom every X day or Almanac every Y day). Thankyou!

    Btw, love your videos.

    Reply
  • ماسا إكرام الحق

    How many of you thought that they actually took colour pictures of the space before watching this video.

    Reply
  • Andrea

    with paint and stuff the primary colors are cyan magenta and yellow to people who don’t know. The others are secondary colors. For exaple you mix magenta and yellow you get red. If you mix yellow and cyan you get blue and so on. Magenta is also a color with no wavelength, Thats because the blue and red receptor turns on in the eye and between red and blue is green but green has its own receptor. Then the brain creates magenta and then magenta don’t have a wavelenght. Between red and green is yellow between green and blue is cyan but magenta? no. Also the colorwheel is a lie all the colors are in a regtangle. So if you wanna go out to get some acrylic colors or any paint and want the primary colors get cyan yellow and magenta. Hope you undestood this.

    Reply
  • Miroslav Antsipovitch

    that's for stupids. all this info could fit in 1 minute

    Reply
  • gabriella cindy GC

    so if im highly spiritual im purple

    Reply
  • gabriella cindy GC

    wowwww amazin info love this

    Reply
  • Ahllen Tanael

    what is real

    Reply
  • The Game Life 101

    This is one of the most interesting videos I’ve ever seen.

    Reply
  • Enjoy

    Thank you very much for giving wonderful knowledge about colour photos

    Reply
  • SuperMoon

    Thanks for the Video, very good explained!

    Reply
  • - ze_fipsi

    3:25 song plz

    Reply
  • draft menship

    I should haven’t watched that video

    Reply
  • Sam Attar

    I’m SHOCKED

    Reply
  • Carlositos G

    Now I understand what I’m looking at when I gaze at those beautiful photographs.

    Reply
  • dennis_futbol

    im to high to understand anything lol

    Reply
  • Lino De Ros

    What a well-made and informative video. I always thought these images were true-color but boy was I wrong.

    Reply
  • Chandler Minh

    So they Photoshop.

    Reply
  • LazyGamer

    FakeNeWs

    Reply
  • Cullen Mitchell

    I appreciate this video for being factual, but I don’t appreciate you referring to the last ruling remnant of the Mongol Empire, and descendant of Genghis Khan, as “this man, Alim Khan.”

    Reply
  • Jordan Stone

    Fascinating stuff.

    Reply
  • Oranje

    This video was extremely fascinating

    Reply
  • dyunpee

    So you mean that when you are into space you will see them almost black and white?… am i correct?

    Reply
  • Saif

    Why dont they just use color cameras to capture the space photos?

    Reply
  • Mobin Noori

    Wow

    Reply
  • mateo fischer

    Technically me as a astrophotographer know that you don’t need to “add” color as you can take them with color to begin with. Some cameras do need this process but not all.

    Reply
  • Nicole Romero

    Actual primary colors: yellow, magenta, cyan

    Reply
  • NCT VELVET

    I recently watched a video about colors and it is said that the real primary colors are magenta, yellow, and cyan

    Reply
  • justundead

    the concept of space being not as colorful just made me lowkey sad

    Reply
  • Master

    Am I the only one that thinks that the thumbnail looks like a cat?

    Reply
  • Isaiah Habib

    As a sandwich artist I can say this video is spot on, well done.

    Reply
  • Ramendra Mishra

    All my life was a lie😢

    Reply
  • ᪶ ᪶

    green is not primary, yellow is.

    Reply
  • Rustychambers

    space dust!

    Reply
  • tjartik

    This is very good to have. We really need this level of explanation, not just to science pursuers and people passionate about knowledge, but for amateur astronomers and photographers as well, for really grasping the understanding about capturing light from deep space. The Universe gave us its "formula" and now we must do the best we can to reach out for it, for everything that is.

    Reply
  • Daniel Sonntag

    Thank you! I actually really wondered how they got color images of the outer space events. Nicely done

    Reply
  • JosVideosHD

    Scientists colorize photos of space by deceiving as usual.

    Reply
  • Kaycee Obingene

    But green is gotten from blue and yellow

    Reply
  • jajlertil

    Yeah this is quality content 👍

    Reply
  • Samara

    I am an astrophotographer and this video is SPOT-ON. This is exactly how Hubble (and I) use a mono camera and filters to image the cosmos in color.

    Reply
  • 5iwot5

    Now this video is one of the reasons I subbed to this channel.

    Reply
  • this guy

    this video was good despite Vox being such a cesspool

    Reply
  • Chase Wulff

    I think I missed something. If making a black and white photo into a color photo is as easy as applying filters and a specific color, why are people spending hundreds of hours hand coloring historic photos?

    Reply
  • HiveMind2000

    Vox is pure cancer but this video wasn’t.

    Reply
  • Logan Ken

    Ondan sonra Photoshop deyince kızıyolar😁👊

    Reply
  • OtakBolong

    still don't get it, so Hubble captured THREE b/w images in each channel? (Red, Blue, and Green?)

    Reply
  • The Other Side

    If we are going to believe that this colorization is 100% accurate, then let them recreate that Russian scientist experiment. They should take a picture of someone in black and white and also in color. Then give the black and white version to a color expert who has NOT seen the original color photo. If the person can recreate exactly the original color based on this technique, then we will know that these space photo colorization technique gives the right result.

    Reply
  • Woo sah

    The universe is a beautiful place you don't need color to see that🙂

    Reply
  • B R

    Thank you, I have so often wondered about this after seeing some of these photos, like the pillars of creation

    Reply
  • Rahim Floki

    5:27 YES, it is made up lol.

    Reply
  • Arjuna Ravikumar

    That was incredibly well explained. Thank you!

    Reply
  • Notchormama

    About as fascinating as Fiddlesticks . Same energy .

    Reply
  • big papa

    I freaking love space images

    Reply
  • TheWalkingBritt

    So..outer space is black & white just like the 1940s.

    Reply
  • sptronix91

    Beautifully explained video. Kudos ! 🙂

    Reply
  • 瑞礄

    Every human ever: "Great. Now let's add another level of complexity!"

    Reply
  • TheCausation

    Now Vox believes in science?

    Reply
  • Duane

    Cool video

    Reply
  • ez45

    Natural colors are NOT made up of the basic colors. It's simply not true! The basic colors allow us to artificially create the same stimuli as the light at a specific wavelength. Your monitor can only produce three colors, your eye sees a spectrum that we artificially create.

    Reply
  • Gmang Khual

    the wonders of god creation, i think there are hundreds more spectrum than on earth

    Reply
  • Telo gantong

    Blue :water

    Reply
  • Alexander Kryska

    Hey friends

    Reply
  • TheWalkingBritt

    Wait. So there IS color in space, its just Hubble wasn't programmed to see color? I feel mislead. They had me thinking space was really black and white like the 30s 🤦🏿‍♀️

    Reply
  • TheWalkingBritt

    Color should be adjusted by how Astronauts see Earth during space walks. Like, we see color, Hubble doesn't, that's my takeaway. That photo of Saturn should basically be tweaked to appear how an astronaut would see it from a satellite's distance. Maybe that doesnt make sense but for example; the distance between our Space Station and Earth. If astronauts could see Saturn at that distance, the color they see is how the photos should be.

    Reply
  • Bill boy

    So is it colourful or not?

    Reply
  • dustin james

    Actually they claim they don't get photos of these things but they get radar waves it comes in as little dots and someone that they cannot name tells them what the little dots mean from there it goes to a graphics enhance personnel that gives it its shape and the color and basically makes it a portrait. This video is very elaborate but unfortunately that is not how they get the color of all of the nebula zebulahs and garbage they give us from the deep space lol

    Reply
  • Venkatesh K

    So hubble shoots in Raw? 😉

    Reply
  • bananacombat

    Tendi nd

    Reply
  • George Hernandez

    man I really thought that outside reaches of space were colorful asf

    Reply
  • Jammer Cast

    I guess yellow, red and blue ain't the true primary colors. Just replace yellow with green.

    Reply
  • TreeMobile.

    What if we could see all the EM spectrum?

    Reply
  • Anijs Anijs 2

    I don’t really get it I think: so space is colored but the pictures are black and white?? Can someone explain

    Reply
  • Ethan Longenbaugh

    Everyone: The primary colors are red, yellow, and blue, the make green, purple, and orange

    Science: Yeah, No

    Reply
  • Ethan Longenbaugh

    Everyone: The primary colors are red, yellow, and blue, the make green, purple, and orange

    Science: Yeah, No

    Reply
  • Derick Eroy

    The thumbnail looks like a cat

    Reply
  • Russell Ramos

    This thought me something more than school 🙂

    Reply
  • Suranjan Bandara

    All life is lie…

    Reply
  • Ryan Thom

    4:00 there is a face

    Reply

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